US — prisoner rights — partial reversal — Krause In a significant prisoner case, a divided Third Circuit panel today ruled in favor of a prisoner whose suit alleged that USP Lewisburg administators retaliated against him for filing inmate grievances by moving him into a cell with another prisoner known for assaulting his cellmates.
Stoolball[ edit ] In an book entitled The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, Joseph Strutt claimed to have shown that baseball-like games can be traced back to the 14th century, in particular an English game called stoolball.
The earliest known reference to stoolball is in a poem by William Pagulawho recommended to priests that the game be forbidden within churchyards. In stoolball, one player throws the ball at a target while another player defends the target.
Originally, the target was defended with a bare hand. Later, a bat of some kind was used in modern stoolball, a bat like a very heavy table tennis paddle is used.
What the target originally was in stoolball is not certain; it was possibly a tree stump, since "stob" and "stow" all mean stump in some local dialects. It is notable that in cricket to this day, the uprights of the wicket are called "stumps".
A 17th-century book on games specifies a stool. According to one legend, milkmaids played stoolball while waiting for their husbands to return from the fields. Another theory is that stoolball developed as a game played after attending church services, in which case the target was probably a church stool.
An 18th-century poem depicts men and women playing together the women using their aprons to catch batted ballsand it and other references associate the game especially with the Easter season.
In the earliest versions, the object was primarily to defend the stool. Successfully defending the stool counted for one point, and the batter was out if the ball hit the stool.
There was no running involved. Another version writing a two chunk paragraph organizer stoolball involved running between two stools, and scoring was similar to the scoring in cricket. In perhaps yet another version there were several stools, and points were scored by running around them as in baseball.
When Englishmen came to America, they brought stoolball with them.
Dog and cat[ edit ] Another early folk game was "dog and cat" or "cat and dog"which probably originated in Scotland. In cat and dog a piece of wood called a cat is thrown at a hole in the ground while another player defends the hole with a stick a dog.
In some cases there were two holes and, after hitting the cat, the batter would run between them while fielders would try to get the runner out by putting the cat in the hole before the runner got to it. Dog and cat thus resembled cricket.
Horne-billets[ edit ] This game, otherwise unknown, was described in an unpublished 17th-century monograph on games by Francis Willoughby, which included rules for over pastimes including stool-ball and stow-ball. In some variants a member of the fielding team threw the ball in the air; in some, the batter tossed it himself as in fungo; in others, the batsman caused the ball to be tossed in the air by a simple lever mechanism: Trap-ball may be the origin of the concept of foul lines; in most variants the ball had to be hit between two posts to count.
A related game was tip-cat; in this, the "cat" was an oblong piece of wood as in dog-and-cat ; it tapered toward each end, rather like a football, so that striking one end would flip it into the air much like the trap in trap-ball so that it could be struck with a stick or bat.
There was no bat and no ball involved. The game was more like a fancy game of team "tag", although it did share the concept of places of safety, bases, with baseball.
Cricket[ edit ] The history of cricket prior to is something of a mystery. Games believed to have been similar to cricket had developed by the 13th century. There was a game called "creag", and another game, "Handyn and Handoute" Hands In and Hands Outwhich was made illegal in by King Edward IVwho considered the game childish, and a distraction from compulsory archery practice.
References to a game actually called "cricket" appeared around While cricket obviously is a relative of baseball in that it involves throwing, batting and running bases, it had developed its own separate identity well before baseball and its closer relatives appeared, and cannot have been a direct ancestor.
English colonists played cricket along with their other games from home, and it is mentioned many times in 18th-century American sources. Teams from the two clubs faced off in the first international cricket game in which Toronto won by 23 runs.
Popular among British and Irish school children, and especially among girls, as of rounders is played by seven million children in the UK. British baseball A unique British sport, known as British baseballis still played in parts of Wales and England.
Although confined mainly to the cities of CardiffNewport and Liverpoolthe sport boasts an annual international game between representative teams from the two countries.
British "baseball", however, is much more akin to rounders, as it was in fact called untiland represents a rounders variant somewhat hybridized under the influence of 19th-century American touring teams. Block also reports the reference appears to date torather than This is the first known instance of the word baseball in print.
Therefore, The Card was the oldest surviving reference to baseball until the Bray diary was discovered in The earliest recorded game of base-ball involved none other than the family of the Prince of Walesplayed indoors in London in November Gutsmuth included a diagram of the field which was very similar to that of town ball.
In the first chapter the young English heroine Catherine Morland is described as preferring "cricket, base ball, riding on horseback and running about the country to books".Did the events of help America reach its ideals?
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