They knew concentration camps were full of Jewish people who were stigmatised as sub-human and race-defilers.
Ration stamps from the German-occupied Netherlands Following the refusal of the Dutch government to return, the Netherlands was controlled by a German civilian governor, unlike France or Denmark which had their own governments, and Belgium, which was under German military control.
The German occupiers implemented a policy of Gleichschaltung "enforced conformity"and systematically eliminated non-Nazi organizations.
Inthe German regime more or less immediately outlawed all Socialist and Communist parties; init forbade all parties, except for the Dutch National Socialist party NSB. Gleichschaltung was an enormous shock to the Dutch, who had traditionally had separate institutions for all main religious groups, particularly Catholic and Protestant, because of decades of pillarisation.
The process was opposed by the Catholic Church in the Netherlandsand, inall Roman Catholics were urged by Dutch bishops to leave associations that had been Nazified. German special visa issued for the travel on a diplomatic train for the evacuation in July of Luftwaffe[ edit ] The Luftwaffe was especially interested in the Netherlands, as the country was designated to become the main area for the air force bases from which to attack the United Kingdom.
Each of these was intended to have at least 2 or 3 hard surface runways, a dedicated railway connection, major built-up and heated repair and overhaul facilities, extensive indoor and outdoor storage spaces, and most had housing and facilities for to men. Each Fliegerhorst also had an auxiliary and often a decoy airfield, complete with mock-up planes made from plywood.
The construction work was performed by Dutch contractors and Dutch workers on a totally voluntary basis. Adjacent to Deelen, the large central air control bunker for Belgium and the Netherlands, Diogenes, was set up. Within a year, the attack strategy had to be altered to a defensive operation.
The ensuing air war over the Netherlands cost almost 20, airmen Allied and German their lives and 6, planes went down over the country - an average of 3 per day during the five years of the war. The Netherlands turned into the first line of western air defense for Germany and its industrial heartland of the Ruhrgebietcomplete with extensive flaksound detection installations and later radar.
The first German night-hunter squadron started its operations from the Netherlands. Some 30, Luftwaffe men and women were involved in the Netherlands throughout the war.
This obliged every man between 18 and 45 to work in German factories, which were bombed regularly by the western Allies. Those who refused were forced into hiding. As food and many other goods were taken out of the Netherlands, rationing increased with ration books. At times, the resistance would raid distribution centres to obtain ration cards to be distributed to those in hiding.
For the resistance to succeed, it was sometimes necessary for its members to feign collaboration with the Germans. After the war, this led to difficulties for those who pretended to collaborate when they could not prove they had been in the resistance — something that was difficult because it was in the nature of the job to keep it a secret.
Atlantic Wall[ edit ] The Atlantic Walla gigantic coastal defense line built by the Germans along the entire European coast from southwestern France to Denmark and Norwayincluded the coastline of the Netherlands. Some towns, such as Scheveningenwere evacuated because of this.
In The Hague alone, 3, houses were demolished and 2, were dismantled. The Arbeitseinsatz also included forcing the Dutch to work on these projects, but a form of passive resistance took place here with people working slowly or poorly. History of the Jews in the Netherlands Anne Frank 's diary has been translated into some sixty languages since its publication Shortly after it was established, the military regime began to persecute the Jews of the Netherlands.
Inthere were no deportations and only small measures were taken against the Jews. The Dutch reacted with the February strikea nationwide protest against the deportations, unique in the history of Nazi-occupied Europe.
Although the strike did not accomplish much—its leaders were executed—it was an initial setback for Seyss-Inquart as he had planned to both deport the Jews and to win the Dutch over to the Nazi cause.
Independent Jewish organizations such as the Committee for Jewish Refugees — founded by Asscher and Cohen in — were closed. In MayJews were ordered to wear the Star of David badges.
Around the same time the Catholic Church of the Netherlands publicly condemned the government's action in a letter read at all Sunday parish services. Thereafter, the Nazi government treated the Dutch more harshly: Concentration camps were built at Vught and Amersfoort as well.
Eventually, with the assistance of Dutch police and civil service, the majority of the Dutch Jews were deported to concentration camps. Of theJews ininclusive both of Dutch Jews and the refugees ensnared by the German invasion ofabout 38, survived at war's end in The Netherlands included religion in its national records, which reduced the opportunity for Jews to mask their ethnic and religious identity.German police units, all under the control of the Nazis during the war, also directly participated in the Holocaust; for example, Reserve Police Battalion , in just over a year, shot 38, Jews and deported 45, more to the extermination camps.
Starting with the First World War and greatly expanding with the second, women started taking on a more active role in defending our country overseas. The allies had enlisted thousands of women as nurses that fought alongside our troops on the frontlines during World War II.
During this time, , American women served in many different ways. Germany was particularly effective in deporting and killing Jews during its occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. Of the , Jews in , inclusive both of Dutch Jews and the refugees ensnared by the German invasion of , about 38, survived at war's end in The Holocaust.
The Holocaust Resource Center. Hide all bibliography. War Crimes Trials and Criminals Holocaust Survivors, Their Post-War Experiences and Psychology.
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Children and Youth. Donate Now. Auxiliary Tools The World Holocaust Remembrance Center. Members of the SA picket in front of a Jewish place of business during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, 1 April (German National Archives) Once in power, Hitler moved quickly to end German democracy.
On May 10, , German troops invaded the Netherlands bringing war to ended five days later as Dutch forces surrendered and German occupation of the Netherlands officially began.
Five years later, the Netherlands would be liberated. However, the toll in human life and suffering during those five.