Children and adults can learn a lot through listening. Regrettably, this is not an instinctive skill. Listening must be taught and developed. Driving home, last week, I noticed some activity on an empty plot of land.
Volume 4, Issue A While she assumes that oral mastery, when it exists, influences reading, she finds that much recent research reveals the influence of reading on speaking. There also seems to be reciprocity between them, which may have implications for ESOL instruction.
Focus on Basics editor Barbara Garner interviewed her to learn more. What do you mean by reciprocity between reading and oral language?
By reciprocity I mean that as skills in some aspect of oral language increase, they help development in reading, and as a person improves his reading skills, that improvement seems to enhance further improvement in the spoken language.
This seems to be a continuing spiral.
I became interested in this because some adult ESOL teachers don't seem to think that it is true. They seem to think there's somewhat of a one-way influence: That's true, but it's also true that as people develop stronger reading skills, they further enable their development of more sophisticated speaking skills.
Where does your sense of ESOL teachers' beliefs come from? In a small survey I did a few years ago, many of the teachers seemed to feel strongly that there was a theory supporting the primacy of the spoken language.
The word "transfer" came up a lot. Some people seemed to believe that a person only had to reach a certain level of oral proficiency in English and reading proficiency would automatically develop if they were already literate in their first language. My guess is that the teachers were influenced by early s Goodman and Smith articles [on what came to be known as whole language].
Goodman and Smith became very influential in the ESOL community, even when the reading community began to contest their ideas regarding the acquisition of beginning reading skills. I later tested 44 Latinos who had, in general, fairly high literacy in Spanish, but not a lot of exposure to written English in their ESOL instruction.
Their performance on English tests was quite low.
They didn't do well in reading in English. There is clearly some transfer [from reading in the first language to reading in the second] but I'm not sure how much. It's not something that automatically happens. If you withhold exposure to practice in English reading and writing until the learners have advanced oral proficiency, you're withholding the very practice they need to improve.
What are some of the main research findings that reflect reciprocity?The Reading Skills Pyramid represents the patterns of concept acquisition that children follow in becoming successful readers up through third grade.
The Time4Learning Reading Skills Pyramid highlights the reading skill expectations of the government NCLB. there is an emphasis on reading comprehension and writing skills.
The Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Tasks Important for Academic Success at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels. Speaking, listening, and writing skills are also the key to success in most 21st century careers, because they are such an inherent part of critical thinking and because they are the means of .
The Relationship Between Reading and Speaking Skills An Interview with Ann Hilferty. Ann Hilferty, Assistant Professor of English at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, has been exploring the research literature on the relationship between the development of reading and speaking skills, especially with adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) learners.
Reading Comprehension Skill Building. Build your own English reading comprehension skills with these exercises, vocabulary lists, and follow-up quizzes, plus tips and strategies for teachers who want to deploy these resources in the classroom.
phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering and applying vocabulary knowledge when considering .