Bellovin, Jason Nieh Email privacy is of crucial importance. Existing email encryption approaches are comprehensive but seldom used due to their complexity and inconvenience.
Operating mode[ edit ] Femtocells are sold or loaned by a mobile network operator MNO to its residential or enterprise customers. Integrated femtocells which include both a DSL router and femtocell also exist.
In most cases,  the user must then declare which mobile phone numbers are allowed to connect to their femtocell, usually via a web interface provided by the MNO. When these mobile phones arrive under coverage of the femtocell, they switch over from the Dtac business analysis outdoor to the femtocell automatically.
Most MNOs provide a way for the user to know this has happened, for example by having a different network name appear on the mobile phone.
All communications will then automatically go through the femtocell. When the user leaves the femtocell coverage whether in a call or not area, their phone hands over seamlessly to the macro network.
Femtocells require specific hardware, so existing WiFi or DSL routers cannot be upgraded to a femtocell.
Once installed in a specific location, most femtocells have protection mechanisms so that a location change will be reported to the MNO. International location change of a femtocell is not permitted because the femtocell transmits licensed frequencies which belong to different network operators in different countries.
Benefits for users[ edit ] The main benefits for an end user are the following: Improved battery life for mobile devices due to reduced transmitter—receiver distance The battery draining issue of mobile operators can be eliminated by means of energy efficiency of the networks resulting in prolongation of the battery life of handsets  Femtocells can be used to give coverage in rural areas.
These all broadly conform to an architecture with three major elements: The femtocell access points themselves, which embody greater network functionality than found in macrocell basestations, such as the radio resource control functions.
This allows much greater autonomy within the femtocell, enabling self-configuration and self-optimisation. The femtocell gateway, comprising a security gateway that terminates large numbers of encrypted IP data connections from hundreds of thousands of femtocells, and a signalling gateway which aggregates and validates the signalling traffic, authenticates each femtocell and interfaces with the mobile network core switches using standard protocols, such as Luh[ expand acronym ].
The management and operational system which allows software updates and diagnostic checks to be administered. These typically use the same TR management protocol published by the Broadband Forum and also used for administration of residential modems.
The key interface in these architectures is that between the femtocell access points and the femtocell gateway. Standardisation enables a wider choice of femtocell products to be used with any gateway, increasing competitive pressure and driving costs down. In the Luh architecture, the femtocell gateway sits between the femtocell and the core network and performs the necessary translations to ensure the femtocells appear as a radio network controller to existing mobile switching centres MSCs.
SIP is not required or used by the mobile device itself. Air interfaces[ edit ] Although much of the commercial focus seems to have been on the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTSthe concept is equally applicable to all air-interfaces.
The differences are mostly to support differences in access control to support closed access for residential deployment or open access for enterprise deployment, as well as handover functionality for active subscribers and cell selection procedures for idle subscribers.
Because femtocells can use the same frequency bands as the conventional cellular network, there has been the worry that rather than improving the situation they could potentially cause problems. Femtocells incorporate interference mitigation techniques—detecting macrocells, adjusting power  and scrambling codes accordingly.
We have tested femtocells extensively in real customer deployments of many thousands of femtocells, and we find that the mitigation techniques implemented successfully minimise and avoid interference. The more femtocells you deploy, the more uplink interference is reduced. In addition, the studies looked at the impact in different morphologies, as well as in closed versus open access.
The following are broad conclusions from the studies: If the femto network is sharing the channel co-channel with the macro network, interference can occur. However, if the interference management techniques advocated by the Femto Forum are adopted, the resulting interference can be mitigated in most cases.
A femtocell network deployed on an adjacent dedicated channel is unlikely to create interference to a macro network. Additionally, the impact of a macro network on the performance of a femtocell on an adjacent channel is limited to isolated cases.
If the interference mitigation techniques advocated by the Femto Forum are used, the impact is further marginalised. Closed access represents the worst-case scenario for creation of interference. Open access reduces the chances of User Equipment mobile phone handsets, 3G data dongles, etc.
The conclusions are common to the MHz and MHz bands that were simulated in the studies, and can be extrapolated to other mobile bands. With interference mitigation techniques successfully implemented, simulations show that femtocell deployments can enable very high capacity networks by providing between a 10 and times increase in capacity with minimal deadzone impact and acceptable noise rise.
Femtocells can also create a much better user experience by enabling substantially higher data rates than can be obtained with a macro network and net throughputs that will be ultimately limited by backhaul in most cases over 20 Mbps in 5 MHz. Lawful interception[ edit ] Access point base stations, in common with all other public communications systems, are, in most countries, required to comply with lawful interception requirements.
Equipment location[ edit ] Other regulatory issues  relate to the requirement in most countries for the operator of a network to be able to show exactly where each base-station is located, and for E requirements to provide the registered location of the equipment to the emergency services.
There are issues in this regard for access point base stations sold to consumers for home installation, for example. Further, a consumer might try to carry his base station with him to a country where it is not licensed.
Some manufacturers are using GPS within the equipment to lock the femtocell when it is moved to a different country;  this approach is disputed[ citation needed ], as GPS is often unable to obtain position indoors because of weak signal.In telecommunications, a femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business.A broader term which is more widespread in the industry is small cell, with femtocell as a r-bridal.com is also called femto AccessPoint (AP).
It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband (such as DSL or . Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
Muhammad Musa Executive Director BRAC. Dr Muhammad Musa is the executive director of BRAC. He has an extensive background in leading humanitarian, social development, and public health organisations in international, cross-cultural settings. This final rule establishes national emergency preparedness requirements for Medicare- and Medicaid-participating providers and suppliers to plan adequately for both natural and man-made disasters, and coordinate with federal, state, tribal, regional, and .
The World's most comprehensive professionally edited abbreviations and acronyms database All trademarks/service marks referenced on this site are properties of their respective owners. In telecommunications, a femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business.A broader term which is more widespread in the industry is small cell, with femtocell as a r-bridal.com is also called femto AccessPoint (AP).
It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband (such as DSL or cable); current designs typically support.