From to the midth century Revolution and empire The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment.
The war swings decisively against the French Empire The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon Iagainst a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitionsfinanced and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. Later efforts were less successful. Inthe French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.
Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helenaan island in the South Atlantic Ocean.
The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.
Latin American independence[ edit ] The Chilean Declaration of Independence on 18 February Most countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century.
InHaiti gained independence from France. In Mexicothe Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil fromleading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal.
After several rebellions, by the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of GuatemalaEl SalvadorHondurasNicaraguaand Costa Rica. Revolutions of [ edit ] Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of The Revolutions of were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.
The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries.
According to Evans and von Strandmannsome of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.
The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished inand by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The American Civil War took place from Eleven southern states seceded from the United Stateslargely over concerns related to slavery.
Lincoln issued a preliminary  on September 22, warning that in all states still in rebellion Confederacy on January 1,he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free. Five days after Robert E. Inthe Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred.
Inthe Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empireand init passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. InBulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Taiping Rebellion[ edit ] A scene of the Taiping Rebellion.
The Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquandeclared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society.
After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom inthe Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in Inafter the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion. Meiji Restoration[ edit ] Main article: Meiji Restoration During the Edo periodJapan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy.
Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History ().
Asia, Timelines: 18th century, 19th century, 20th century. Romanticism - Early 19th Century - 19th Century - Russian Artistic Movements - The first half of the nineteenth century was a momentous period in Russian history.
The main event was the war with the Napoleonic army, which lasted from the mids until 1 18th Century. Academic ; Baroque.
French literature - From to the midth century: The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment. Many ways of thinking and feeling—whether based on reason, sentiment, or an exacerbated sensibility—and most literary forms persisted with little change from to The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History (). Asia, Timelines: 18th century, 19th century, 20th century. Influenced by: Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Velázquez, Zurburan, Louis Le Nain, Charles Baudelaire (a 19th century writer who called for an art that would use the "heroism of modern life" as its subject), European revolutions of , Socialism, and early photography.
Head vs. Heart refers to the two differing art movements during the Late 18th & Early 19th century. Head refers to the Neoclassical movement, with Heart referring to the Romanticism movement. These differing movements had different ideals, Neoclassicism was very logical and . Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe.
His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in In this work. Romanticism: 19th-century ( to ) movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought.
Lateth-century movement based on a simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns A lateth and early 21st century movement in American poetry advocating a return to.
In music history, the term generally refers to the period between Beethoven’s maturity and the rise of the Modernist trends of the early 20th century; at the same time, it has become common to draw a division between the (Early) Romantic and Late- or Post-Romantic eras – such as is adopted here.